LUKE Northern and Arctic Agrosystem monitoring sites - satellite Maaninka


Open-air Platform

Parent institution: Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke)
Active since 1985
Active through 1985-2016

Fields of study

  • Environmental sciences, Pollution
  • Soil science
  • Hydrology
  • Terrestrial biology, Ecology

Contact Information

Järvenranta, Kirsi

Maaninka experimental field was established in 1985 to investigate leaching and surface runoff was added in year 2000. Renovation and development work will be done 2019-2020. Field will have 16 lysimeters (1 permanent treatment: grass + 3 optional treatments) and 16 surface runoff collectors on same plots. Repacked lysimeters are possible because of low clay content of the soil. After renovation and development, data collection will be continuous and operated automatically. The field will be cultivated with farm machinery by research technicians of Luke.

The Location

Country: Finland

Latitude: 63.143961

Longitude: 27.316832

Nearest town: Kuopio, Maaninka municipal center of about 2900 inhabitants.

Distance from neaerst town: Town 45 km; settlement 1.5 km km

Relevant Research Questions

Nutrient leaching (P, N, DOC; leaching, surface runoff) from grassland and dairy production on typical dairy production area with severe winter conditions.


Maaninka site is excellent infrastructure constructed expecially for leaching studies for severe winter conditions in Northern Europe. Surface and subsurface discharge water are collected separately and flow-proportional water samples are taken. After renovation that will be done in 2019-2020 there will be automatic system for continuous data collection. There will be research technicians of Luke on site. Experimentation or results of Maaninka Lysimeter field can be connected to a surface runoff simulator installed in climate chamber (Maaninaka), and to a small catchment scale monitoring system (Kirmajärvi) 60 km from the lysimeter field.


Renovation and test period of the lysimenter field will delay the the start of the experimental operation to year 2021-2022.

Experimental Capabilities

Experimental Facilities

Luke laboratories available, portable GHG chambers

Experiments duration: Weeks, Months, Years;

Experimental Aerea

Total area: 1500 m²

Outside the constructed lysimeters (50 m2 ) and surface runoff plots (250 m2) the actual experiment field is 7000 m2 that can be used for experiments, but leaching studies are not possible outside the constructed area. Each experimental plot is a combination of a surface runoff collection area (250m2) and a lysimeter (50m2).

Available area: 1500 m²

Experimental Unit Size

unit size: 250 m²

The typical size of each experimental unit is 250/50. Leaching studies may be fixed depending over the duration of current project status. New experiments are to start at agricultural season 2021.


Replicates number: 4

The field is 8 x 2 lysimeters, use depends on experimental lay out

Temporary storage

  • Dark room
  • Drying oven
  • Freezer
  • Liquid N
  • Refrigerator

Available Instruments

  • Basic field sample instruments
  • Weather station: temp, prec
  • Penetrometer (Eijkelkamp)
  • Licor 2000 canopy analyzator (LAI)
  • TDR Soil surface layer moisture sensor
  • Tension infiltrometers (Soil measurement systems)
  • Single-ring infiltrometers

Electricity available on site.

Distance from Laboratory facilities


Years measured: since 1930


Mean Temperature: 2.2 °C

February Mean Temperature: -8.7 °C

July Mean Temperature: 17.3 °C


Mean Annual Speed: 3 m/s

Max. Annual Speed: m/s

Dominant Direction: SW


Precipitation type: Both;

Total annual precipitation: 633 mm

Mean snow cover duration: days

Soil Types

State Variables

Continuously Measured

  • (aquatic) Conductivity
  • (aquatic) Current speed
  • (aquatic) pH
  • (aquatic) Turbidity
  • (aquatic) Water temperature
  • Air humidity
  • Air temperature
  • Atmospheric pressure
  • Incident PAR
  • Incident shortwave radiation
  • Population densities
  • Soil temperature

Spot Measured

  • (aquatic) Nutrient levels
  • Phenology
  • Soil water content
  • Species richness

Environmental Pressures

Variable Ecosystem Status
Management - Nutrients (levels or nutrient type) Agrosystem Planned
Management - tilling or other physical manipulation Agrosystem Planned
Management - rotation practice Agrosystem Planned
Management - species and/or ecotype combinations Agrosystem Planned
Management - Nutrients (levels or nutrient type) Grassland Planned
Management - tilling or other physical manipulation Grassland Planned
Management - rotation practice Grassland Planned
Management - species and/or ecotype combinations Grassland Planned
Precip Agrosystem Active
Hydro Agrosystem Active
Soileutroph Agrosystem Active
Watereutroph Agrosystem Active
Soilerosion Agrosystem Active

On site Staff and Accomodation

Peak season staff

Up to 40 people

Off season staff

Up to 35 people

Visiting personnel

No visitors allowed.

No beds on site

Showers on site

Showers on site

Laundry on site

Laundry on site